Vannevar Bush

"One can now picture a future investigator in his laboratory. His hands are free, and he is not anchored. As he moves about and observes, he photographs and comments. Time is automatically recorded to tie the two records together. If he goes into the field, he may be connected by radio to his recorder. As he ponders over his notes in the evening, he again talks his comments into the record. His typed record, as well as his photographs, may both be in miniature, so that he projects them for examination."

"The scientist, however, is not the only person who manipulates data and examines the world about him by the use of logical processes, although he sometimes preserves this appearance by adopting into the fold anyone who becomes logical, much in the manner in which a British labor leader is elevated to knighthood. Whenever logical processes of thought are employed—that is, whenever thought for a time runs along an accepted groove—there is an opportunity for the machine. Formal logic used to be a keen instrument in the hands of the teacher in his trying of students' souls. It is readily possible to construct a machine which will manipulate premises in accordance with formal logic, simply by the clever use of relay circuits. Put a set of premises into such a device and turn the crank, and it will readily pass out conclusion after conclusion, all in accordance with logical law, and with no more slips than would be expected of a keyboard adding machine."

Knowledge Worker / Intellectual Worker / Programmer
Douglas Engelbart

“Consider the intellectual domain of a creative problem solver [...]. These [...] could very possibly contribute specialized processes and techniques to a general worker in the intellectual domain: Formal logic—mathematics of many varieties, including statistics—decision theory— game theory—time and motion analysis—operations research— classification theory— documentation theory—cost accounting, for time, energy, or money—dynamic programming— computer programming.”

“Twenty years later, Douglas Engelbart, inventor of the pioneering personal computer system NLS as well as hypertext and the mouse, talked about his research on the augmentation of human intellect as “bootstrapping”—meaning that human beings, and their brains and bodies, will evolve along with new technology (II). French sociologist Thierry Bardini describes this approach in his book about Douglas Engelbart as such: “Engelbart wasn’t interested in just building the personal computer. He was interested in building the person who could use the computer to manage increasing complexity efficiently.”4

lady with the royal typewritter
Tim mott

"Another Xerox employee named Tim Mott (aka “the father of user centered design”) brought the idea of a secretary into the imagination of his colleagues. This image of the “Lady with the Royal Typewriter” (V) predetermined the designs of Xerox Star, Apple Lisa, and other digitally emulated offices."

"Alienation of users from their computers started in Xerox PARC with secretaries, as well as with artists and musicians. And it never stopped. Users were seen and marketed as people whose real jobs, feelings, thoughts, interests, talents—everything that matters—exist outside of their interaction with personal computers."

Children / Artists / Musicians
Alan Kay

“Another interesting nugget was that children really needed as much or more computing power than adults were willing to settle for when using a timesharing system. [...] The kids [...] are used to finger-paints, water colors, color television, real musical instruments, and records.”


The cover of the 2006 TIME magazine “Person of the Year” issue features a computer screen-cum-YouTube video frame announcing that “You” are the winner of this year’s award. The subtitle is “Yes, you. You control the Information Age. Welcome to your world.”

Interactor (me)
Janet Murray

“[User] is another convenient and somewhat outdated term, like ‘interface.’ [...] A user may be seeking to complete an immediate task; an interactor is engaged in a prolonged give and take with the machine.”

Web 1.0 vs Web 2.0
  • Read
  • Web as reading platform
  • Developer authorship
  • Individual intelligence
  • Software applications
  • Commercial/Proprietary
  • Static
  • Impersonal
  • Read/Write/Collaborate
  • Web as publishing platform
  • Public authorship
  • Collective intelligence
  • Web as software platform
  • Open source/Shared
  • Dynamic
  • Personal
Hacking vs Defaults
  • Hacking a Nintendo cartridge to make images
  • Glitch
  • Net.Art 1.0
  • Anxiety
  • "The Man is taking away our privacy... that's lame!"
  • Empowering The People by subverting The Man's power
  • Rock & Roll attitude
  • Sophisticated breaking of technology
  • Using MS Paint to make images
  • 12 point Times New Roman
  • Net.Art 2.0
  • Banality
  • "We willingly give up our own privacy (i.e. endlessly talking about ourselves on our Myspace profiles)... why?"
  • Being and critiquing The People by using the tools made by The Man
  • Exuberant humility
  • Semi-naive, regular use of technology
Me to My
  • Selfie
  • Social media trends
  • Instagram user
  • Likes
  • Followers
  • Double Click/React
  • Facebook/Instagram
  • Update and Upgrade
  • Image Gallery
  • Social media profile
  • World population
  • Invitations links
  • Friends
  • Click/Link (to navigate)
  • Hi5
  • Upload and Download
Public vs Private
  • The Internet
  • Public Share virtualised resources
  • Supports multiple costumers
  • Supports connectivity over internet
  • Suited for less confidential information
  • Priceless
  • "Custom solutions"
  • Accessible
  • The Cloud
  • Private Share virtualised resources
  • Cluster of dedicated costumers
  • Connectivity over internet, fibre and private network
  • Suited for secured information & core systems
  • Fixed costs
  • "Do it yourself"
  • Restricted
Download vs Upload
  • Export
  • To make it private
  • Collect
  • Copy
  • To transfer (to receive/acquire)
  • To go beyond browsing
  • prerequisite
  • to be political
  • Import
  • To make it public
  • Share
  • Paste
  • To transfer (to give)
  • To construct the browser
  • Requisite
  • To act political
Archive vs Backup
  • Preserve historical data
  • Data retention and recovery
  • Business Users
  • Source data may be deleted
  • Item level preservation, search, retrieval, analysis and export
  • A single fully indexed copy of all data
  • Produce complete and accurate evidence to meet legal, regulatory and policy obligations.
  • Primarly based on age, location, content and metadata.
  • Protect current and revision data
  • Point in time data recovery
  • Administrators
  • Source data is left in place
  • Point in time revision and basic metadata search
  • Multiple points in time copies of data (revisions)
  • Restore data after loss, corruption or unintentional deletion, to a specific point in time
  • Primarly based on the age of the data that would need to be restrored

vannevar bush visual prototype

microfilm capture, storage, display

use desktop platen to 'scan' new microfiche

or use head-mounted stereo camera

microfiche stored in desk drawers

two microfiche can be projected side by side on screen

author create associative 'trails' for others to follow

readers browse using joystick, microfilm index, or follow trails

"augmentation is fundamentally a matter of organization"

  • Google
  • Youtube
  • Tmall
  • Facebook
  • Baidu
  • Tencent QQ
  • Sohu
  • Yahoo!
  • Wikipedia
  • Amazon
  • Selfie
  • Harlem Shake
  • Memes
  • Ice Bucket Challenge
  • Charlie Charlie Challenge
  • Cinnamon Challenge
  • Memes
  • Nyan Cat
  • Amazon